The Ancient Greek word deon is commonly translated as obligation or duty. [92] Patrick Findler, Should Kids Play (American) Football?, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(3): 443-462 (2015). Support your position with data and facts. [73] Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. Over the last ten years, more than one billion dollars in legal revenue has been generated from the mining and sale of amber. Deontology comes from the Greek word for duty. [26] James P. Kelly et al., Concussion in Sports: Guidelines for the Prevention of Catastrophic Outcome, JAMA, 266(20): 2867-2869 (1991). [55] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). There is a definite contrast between utilitarianism, even Mill’s version, and Kant’s system of ethics, known as deontology, in which duty, obligation, and good will are of the highest importance. While some researchers and universities feel as though they should refrain from making such amber purchases, their failure to participate enables many private collectors to remove collections from the public or to charge researchers an exorbitant fee for access. Myanmar is a small southeast Asian country that contains about 130 diverse ethnic groups recognized by the government. In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved. [31] Christie Aschwanden, Football’s Concussion Crisis is Awash with Pseudoscience, Wired.com, Oct. 2, 2019. One of the oldest amber deposits in the world, dating back 100 million years, is located in the Northern region of Myanmar. [56] Professor Goldberg argues that “there is little evidence that such incremental changes [e.g., in tackling techniques] have a substantial risk-reducing effect.”[57]. Deontologists believe that the goal of moral philosophy should be to figure out the “rules” for living a moral life and that once people know those rules they should follow them. [54] Marc Siegel, Concussions and Football: New Helmets, New Tools, The Hill, Aug. 19, 2019. For instance, if we found a killer in our society, we all will hate him and consider him wrong because he/she has killed somebody. [68] Bill Pennington, Trump Says N.F.L. Deontological ethics, or deontology, is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action. How do the tau clumps relate to the clinical syndrome—do the lesions fully explain the mood and memory problems? Deontological ethics is a moral philosophy where the usual ethical definition of right or wrong is based on a series of rules to follow instead of the consequences which occur from such a decision. Deontology is simple to apply. Explain. The word deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning “obligation” or “duty.”It is an ethical system primarily concerned with one’s duty. Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”. [30] Julie M. Stamm et al., Age of First Exposure to Football and Later-life Cognitive Impairment in Former NFL Players, Neurology, 84(11): 1114-1120 (2015). [47] There is also evidence that the NFL sought to influence the findings of some of the research it funded. Deontological Ethics. Deontology deals with intentions and motives. [72] Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). It is different from both the above concepts as it concentrates completely on virtues and ideals. The theory of deontology states we are morally obligated to act in accordance with a certain set of principles and rules regardless of outcome. Deontology: Definition, Theory, Ethics & Examples December 10, 2020 / in Feeds / by Grace Wahito. b. Explain. [62] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). [5] Although concussions can carry serious consequences, they are termed a “mild” form of TBI because they are not typically life threatening. Login [37] Everett J. Lehman et al., Suicide Mortality Among Retired National Football League Players Who Played 5 or More Seasons, American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(10): 2486-2491 (2016). 2. Deontological ethical theory is Kantian in origin. 30 videos - one minute each - relate recent scandals in the news and give ethical insights. Do you think this an ethical issue or just a policy issue? Explain why and how using that approach might play out. [36] Munro Cullum, Is Football Bad for the Brain? Deontology is a school of moral philosophy in which ethical behavior equals following rules. [61] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. [5] Center for Disease Control, at https://www.cdc.gov/headsup/basics/concussion_whatis.html. [80] Anthony E. Prior, The Slave Side of Sunday (2006). They can suffer concussions from milder collisions than would be required to concuss a collegiate or professional player. Do you see parallels between the debate as to whether to begin playing football again in the wake of the pandemic and the debate as to whether to abolish or reform football in light of the evidence on brain trauma? It has been suggested at both the NFL and collegiate level that team physicians are faced with conflicting loyalties. Deontology is often associated with philosopher Immanuel Kant. Gammon, Katharine, “The Human Cost of Amber,” The Atlantic, Aug. 2, 2019.   https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2019/08/amber-fossil-supply-chain-has-dark-human-cost/594601/, Grimaldi, David, “Amber,” Current Biology Magazine. [43] Zachary Y. Kerr et al., Concussion Incidence and Trends in 20 High School Sports, Pediatrics 144(5): e20192190. Maybe that person has killed another one in self-defense. In one study, use of newly-designed football helmets and safe tackling techniques eliminated concussions for 20 middle school aged players for an entire season. Is your opinion altered by the fact that the scientist quoted above is the neurologist for the Michigan State University football team? All three? For this and other reasons, many thinkers have advocated a second type of moral theory, deontological ethics. (The word is derived from the Greek deon , meaning duty, and logos again, here meaning organization for the purpose of study. Another study of 35 former NFL players over age 50 who had sustained multiple concussions during their careers found no significant association between the length of careers, the number of concussions, and their level of cognitive function later in life. [Reporting a concussion] doesn’t make you weak, it means you’re strong.” On the other hand, President Trump has stated that rule changes to diminish head injuries are “ruining the game.”, One scientist said: “Don’t forget there’s risk in everything we do. A 2017 study found CTE in 21% of donated brains of deceased high school football players. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Are there other cognitive biases and heuristics that might adversely affect your moral reasoning if you are not careful? [8] Such proteins develop in tangles that slowly strangle neurons and, consequently, inhibit brain function.[9]. Rather, factors other than good outcomes determine the rightness of actions. [22] Steven Senne, Student Athletes Still Reluctant to Report Concussions, Nationwide Children’s Study Finds, Columbus Dispatch, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.dispatch.com/news/20191124/student-athletes-still-reluctant-to-report-concussions-nationwide-childrens-study-finds. African-Americans make up 12.6% of the American population but 68% of NFL rosters. Why or why not? Dr. Omalu identified abnormal clumps of the protein tau in Webster’s brain, which he believed to be evidence of CTE. This statistic is up 61% from 2002-2007, perhaps reflecting an improvement of awareness and reporting. [53] Studies indicate that there are helmets that may decrease concussions,[54] but neuroscientist Julie Stamm says: “No helmet will ever be concussion-proof, because the brain still moves inside the skull. Do you think that the NFL would make more safety-related changes if white players dominated rosters? The theory of deontology states we are morally obligated to act in accordance with a certain set of principles and rules regardless of outcome. [1] Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020. [3], A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is “a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury.”[4] A concussion is a form of TBI where the blow causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth, bouncing around in the skull and suffering various types of structural damage. Deontological is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, instead of examining its consequences or any other considerations. It is a cornerstone of a moral philosophy enunciated by this great Prussian-German philosopher circa 300 years back. 36 short illustrated videos explain behavioral ethics concepts and basic ethics principles. A political issue? In deciding whether it is ethical for you to buy amber from Myanmar, do you need to guard against the self-serving bias unduly affecting your decision? [32] Matt Ventresca & Mary G. McDonald, Forces of Impact: Critically Examining Sport’s “Concussion Crisis,” in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Ventresca & McDonald, eds., 2019). But it also means disregarding the possible consequences of our actions when determining what is right and what is wrong. [35]  Other studies have involved skewed samples, including one where all the NFL players’ brains had been donated because of mental declines that the donors had suffered before their deaths.[36]. a theoretical approach to ethical questions in which moral obligation is seen as arising from certain unvarying rules and principles, which are universal, i.e. [46] Robert F. Heary et al., Is Youth Football Safe? 3. [28] Eamon T. Campolettano et al., Development of a Concussion Risk Function for a Youth Population Using Heal Linear and Rotational Acceleration, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 48(1): 92 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-019-02382-2. Kant believed that ethical actions follow universal moral laws, such as “Don’t lie. If subconcussive blows are the cause of C.T.E., how much impact is too much? [93] Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? And How Will It Change in 2019?, ESPN, Aug. 19, 2019, at https://www.espn.com/nfl/story/_/id/27372974/did-helmet-rule-actually-work-2018-how-change-2019. Is it always a consideration that buyers should take into account? Is Getting Soft. Being Your Best Self, Part 1: Moral Awareness, Being Your Best Self, Part 2: Moral Decision Making, Being Your Best Self, Part 3: Moral Intent, Being Your Best Self, Part 4: Moral Action, Ethical Leadership, Part 1: Perilous at the Top, Ethical Leadership, Part 2: Best Practices, Curbing Corruption: GlaxoSmithKline in China, Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. Deontology is defined as an ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the … [82] Stephen S. Hanson, ‘He Didn’t Want to Let His Team Down’: The Challenge of Dual Loyalty for Team Physicians, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 45(3): 215-227 (2018). The word deontological comes from the Greek word deon which means binding duty. [15] Everett J. Lehman et al., Neurodegenerative Causes of Death Among Retired National Football League Players, Neurology, 79(19): 1970-1974 (2012). One suggested solution to the concussion problem is to outlaw helmets on the theory that players will be forced to reduce headfirst collisions and other trauma-causing actions. [50] The NFL has also changed rules to discourage helmet-to-helmet contact,[51] and has instituted protocols for safely returning concussed players to the field. One expert said “It really seems right now that if your [football] practices are highly controlled and reduced as much as possible and you only play four years of high school, your [CTE] risk is probably pretty low.”. Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to distinguish right from wrong. [90] J.S. Then, take a … [33] William Stewart et al., Primum Non Nocere: A Call for Balance When Reporting on CTE, Lancet Neurology, 18:231-232 (2019). So, following the rules makes deontology easy to apply. DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS Deontology is the view that because there are moral constraints on promoting overall best consequences, sometimes the right action is not the one whose consequences are best. In deontological ethics, employees are required to perform their duties according to the laid down procedures. Over two regular seasons (2012-2014), NFL players sustained 4,384 injuries, including 301 concussions. )The study of ethics is an attempt to definitively establish a standard for human behavior. [79] Peter Benson, Big Football: Corporate Social Responsibility and the Culture and Color of Injury in America’s Most Popular Sport, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 41(4): 307-334 (2017); Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? Many people who are in favor of abolishing football or significantly reforming the way it is played are pro-choice when it comes to abortion, minor drug use, and assisted suicide. Don’t steal. Chen also points to the uncertainties of the science, noting: “For now, these complexities make certain questions about the disease unanswerable. New Yorker writer Ingfei Chen observed that Fisher-Price had been required to recall a collapsible crib that was associated with 32 infant deaths. [91] J.S. [52], On the other hand, while football helmets can prevent fractured skulls, they will likely never be able to prevent concussions. [88] Kathleen Bachynski, Youth Football is a Moral Abdication, The Atlantic, Feb. 1, 2020. [12] Jesse Mez et al., Duration of American Football Play and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopothy, Annals of Neurology, 2019; DOI: 10.1002/ana.25611. 4. Deontological ethics is in keeping with Scripture, natural moral law, and intuitions from common sense. [64] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle. [78] David Gee, Doubt is Their Product: How Industry’s Assault on science Threatens Your Health, Journal of Public Health Policy, 29(4): 474-479 (2008). [58] Daniel Engber, Concussion Lies, Slate, Dec. 21, 2015, at https://slate.com/culture/2015/12/the-truth-about-will-smiths-concussion-and-bennet-omalu.html; Kevin Lomangino, Journalists Drop the Ball on Big Concussion/CTE Story, HEALTHNEWSREVIEW.ORG, Jan. 19, 2018, at https://www.healthnewsreview.org/2018/01/sports-desks-drop-the-ball-on-big-concussion-story/; [59] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). Others suggest that the uncertainty favors taking actions now rather than waiting until too much damage is done, as happened with tobacco. It paid more than $750 million to settle a civil lawsuit by former players. If you took a utilitarian approach to answering this question, what would your reasoning look like? A policy issue? And concussion recurrence has been reduced, most likely by protocols guiding when it is safe to return to play. This ethical theory is most closely … Another study found that greater RHI exposure correlated with higher levels of plasma t-tau (a biomarker for CTE) in symptomatic former NFL players as compared to the study’s control group. Ramogi Huma, executive director of the National College Players Association, argued that schools should be required to fully inform [college] players about the risks of playing football now, including information about their susceptibilities to underlying health conditions. You can hack the network and cancel the launch, but it’s against your professional code of ethics to break into any software system without permission. Alan Schwarz et al., N.F.L.’s Flawed Concussion Research and Ties to Tobacco Industry, New York Times, March 24, 2016. Bry believes that this will never happen. Myanmar amber is plentiful, high quality and contains inclusions within the resin. Reducing tackling in practices has reduced overall concussion numbers among high school players, even though the number of concussions in games has risen slightly. This has led some to suggest that the NFL is a modern plantation. We all see killing or murdering as the wrongest human deed because we are taught since our childhood that killing anybody including an animal in a wrong act. Which approach do you think should be used to determine the ethicality of banning, or at least seriously reforming, football to reduce head trauma? Deontology is an ethical theory that uses rules to discern the moral course of action. [48] Kathleen Bachynski & Daniel S. Goldberg, Time Out: NFL Conflicts of Interest with Public Health Efforts to Prevent TBI, Injury Prevention, at https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/180.full; Ingfei Chen, Exactly How Dangerous Is Football?, The New Yorker, Feb. 1, 2020; Mark Fainaru-Wada & Steve Fainaru, League of Denial: The NFL, Concussions, and the Battle for Truth (2013). Don’t cheat.”. The… [66] Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). We Know Little About the Long-term Effects of Concussions, Statnews, Sept.27, 2019. Deontology is a school of moral philosophy in which ethical behavior equals following rules. [70] Nicholas Dixon, Boxing, Paternalism, and Legal Moralism, Social Theory and Practice, 27(2): 323-344 (2001). The co-chair of the NFL’s Health and Safety Advisory Committee has said that the committee thinks helmets are part of the culture and tradition and will not be outlawed in the foreseeable future. In this terminology, action is more im… 8 short videos present the 7 principles of values-driven leadership from Giving Voice to Values by Mary Gentile. Conflicting loyalties laws when performing an action, nor does it consider the results. Found no elevated risk of suicide in a population of players with at least five years the.: //www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html there are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and do duty. Of depressive symptoms no worse than those of the general population 111 NFL whose... Robert F. Heary et al., is located in the world, dating back 100 million years, than... Questions on high Schools & Colleges, discussion Questions on high Schools & Colleges, discussion Questions Youth. 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