sartu. Since 1 Basque and Proto-Basque may be analyzed as exhibiting every type of compound described by Bauer (2009). However, the same auxiliaries may be used in a wide variety of tenses, not only in the present. The future stem is obtained from the participle by adding -ko (-go after n). This is the reason why many of the glosses given below sound odd (e.g. Morphologically these can all be derived via suffixation from the three non-finite forms presented at the beginning of this article: the participle, the verbal noun and the short stem. What Is a Conjugated Verb? Basque pronouns include personal pronouns (refer to the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about), indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns (connect parts of sentences) and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is being acted on by verb's subject). Enjoy the rest of the lesson! Here are some examples: Notice the structure of the Verbs in Basque. -rabil- 'cause to move, use'). In most cases the participle of such verbs has the suffix -tu (-du if the stem ends in n or l). In subordinate clauses, the finite verb takes a subordinator affix, i.e. Basque language - Basque language - Grammar: The mention of three features is unavoidable in describing Basque syntax. Some affixes in different Only a limited class of verbs can be conjugated synthetically and nearly all of these only defectively. For example, 'I come' is nator (a synthetic finite form), but 'I arrive' is iristen naiz (a periphrastic form, literally 'arriving I-am'). egin or hartu). izan), or a verb without synthetic finite forms (e.g. Originally this tense expressed perfect in a present time-frame, e.g. With stative verbs (e.g. Person of the ergative marker may be indexed in one of two ways: using suffixes or prefixes. ', etc. A few verb stems have an irregular dative-argument form. Other unexpected properties are mentioned next. One of the remarkable characteristics of the Basque verb is the fact that only a very few verbs can be conjugated synthetically (i.e. This is known as the, Allières, Jacques (1983). In some such cases the synthetic/periphrastic contrast is semantic (e.g. For those who know Spanish, think about if "501 Spanish verbs" gave only a brief overview of "ser", "estar" "ir" etc. The suffix -(e)n is a marker of the past tenses, and -ke of the potential tenses (the past potential has both: -ke-en). O thir, 614,000 live in the Spaingie pairt o the Basque kintra an the remainin 51,800 live in the French pairt. a suffix or prefix which establishes (to some extent) the kind of subordination. What Are the English Verb Tenses? A third non-finite form which we shall call the "short stem" is obtained from the participle by omitting any of these suffixes except -n, which is retained in the short stem in those verbs whose participle has it. The participle and some other non-finite forms derived therefrom are as follows. The following table shows some examples of how these prefixes combine with verb stems to produce a wide range of finite verb forms. Egia ote? Verb Technology Company Inc stocks price quote with latest real-time prices, charts, financials, latest news, technical analysis and opinions. Traditionally Basque verbs are cited using a non-finite form conventionally referred to as the participle (although not all its uses are really participial). That is, it has a case denoting the agent of an action. subject–object–verb) language, but as one can see, the order of elements in the Basque sentence is not rigidly determined by grammatical roles (such as subject and object) and has to do with other criteria (such as focus and topic). Instead of the ergative suffixes, ergative prefixes are used to index first- or second-person ergative arguments if the tense is non-present and the direct object is third person (see the gaps in the previous table). Had I known these were missing, I wouldn't have purchased. ohera-tu), (3) a Latin or Romance verbal stem (e.g. Basque has the status of a statutory provincial language in Basque Country of Spain where most speakers of Basque also speak Castilian. z-ebil-en 'he went about' but n-enbil-en 'I went about', h-enbil-en 'you went about'; l-erabil-ke 'he would use it' but n-inderabil-ke 'he would use me'. Morphology. The forms of verbs cited throughout the general presentation of the finite verb system are normally those that occur in main clauses. Basque verbs have a fairly wide range of non-finite forms. Oct 28, 2019 - The verb is one of the most complex parts of Basque grammar. Basque sentence the verbs and surrounding heads. The morphemes in the synthetic verb in Basque show a rather fixed ordering, which can be summarized as in Table 1. 'I have come because you called me. Except in the aorist, the auxiliary for intransitives is the verb 'to be', while that for transitives is the verb 'to have'. As someone who took up Basque after moving to the Basque Country five years ago, nor-nori-nork does get easier. When there is triple agreement on the auxiliary (for the subject, indirect, and direct objects), the absolutive argument (direct object) argument can only be inflected for 3rd person. in front of a synthetic finite form or the synthetic part of an auxiliary verb). Examples of this suffix are shown in Table 3. A brief selection of some of the most important of these are shown in the following table: Non-finite verb forms. One of the first scientific studies of Basque dialects, in particular the auxiliary verb forms, was made by Louis-Lucien Bonaparte (a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte). (root -bil-) is regularly conjugated, although not all its synthetic forms are in widespread use. sar as above, but the perfective participle instead, i.e. The subject of an intransitive verb is in the absolutive case (which is unmarked), and the same case is used for the direct object of a transitive verb. 'You will have a good time while/when (you are) learning Basque. Southern Basque (like Spanish) has two different verbs that are usually translated to English as “to be”; izan and egon. the same participle as for 'to be'; the two meanings are disambiguated by the context. If you want to learn irregular verbs, you need to practice, practice, practice. Singular and Plural English Verbs Chart. Apart from the short stem (which has a rather limited set of functions), all other forms are built on either the participle or the verbal noun. -abil- and -ebil- are the regular present and non-present stems of -bil-, -arabil- and -erabil- are the corresponding tense stems of -rabil-, and so on. It bit me. This article does not give a full list of verb forms; its purpose is to explain the nature and structure of the system. Its participle is izan. It has no official status in the Basque Country of France where many people also speak French. The hypothetic non-potential tense usually occurs with the subordinator prefix ba- 'if', which will therefore be shown in examples; use of ba- is not restricted to the hypothetic, however (e.g. This article does not give a full list of verb forms; its purpose is to explain the nature and structure of the system. Also don't forget to check the rest of our other lessons listed on Learn Basque. Again, to avoid repetition, mention will not be made of the use of the -t(z)en form as an imperfect stem in the formation of periphrastic tenses (see above). Basque pronouns include personal pronouns (refer to the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about), indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns (connect parts of sentences) and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is being acted on by verb's subject). The verb esan ('to say') possesses finite forms which have a different stem, -io- (e.g. Intransitive, That said, it has its shortcomings. dit 'he has it to me'); an example of a more natural-sounding use of this form as an auxiliary would be eman dit 'he has given it to me'. identified by the criteria in Tables 1 and 2. ', Etortzen denean esango diot. The absence of an ergative suffix in transitive verbs (except those discussed in the next section) implies a third-person subject. Nominal and verbal morphology is essentially agglutinating, employing mostly suffixes to add grammatical information, though prefixes may be used in some verb forms to express subject and object. Synthetically conjugated verbs like 'come' can also be conjugated periphrastically (etortzen naiz). Given that Basque verbs are conventionally cited in their participle form, this presents a problem for metalinguistic terminology, because the verb izan is ambiguous. Such arguments are indexed in a different way from 'primary' arguments. Ez dut esan etorriko denik. There are several constructions in Basque which are used to give something like imperative or hortative force, as exemplified in the following chart, based on the verb joan «to go»: Person Simple Periphrastic Simple +-(e)la Periphrastic +-(e) la 1 sg. Some affixes in different Lucky for you, “There’s an app for that.” We’ve put together approximately 150 fun and useful phrases for you to master while you travel. Really disappointed that the book doesn't cover the 20+ synthetic verbs in depth. The ergative case is the case of subjects of transitive verbs. Nevertheless, the following table serves to clarify the morphological structure of dative-argument verb forms. Basque: I buy it. To avoid repetition, mention will not be made of the use of the participle as a perfect stem in the formation of periphrastic tenses (see above). perfect in a past time-frame, e.g. The compounds shown in Table 1 are just a … With intransitive verbs, these prefixes index the subject; with transitives, they index the direct object. -litz, or the subjunctive, e.g. 'When she comes I will tell her. The non-present stem is used in the past and hypothetic tenses (non-potential and potential), and in third-person imperative forms, e.g. With dynamic verbs and stative ones with synthetic conjugation, expresses habitual action in the past (. Below is a list of the conjugated Verbs in the present past and future in Basque placed in a table. Only a limited class of verbs can be conjugated synthetically and nearly all of these only defectively. The present stem is used in the present tense, the present potential tense and the non-third-person imperative, e.g. To index the second-person plural (pronoun zuek), in addition to the markers corresponding to zu a further ('secondary') plural marker -te is suffixed. ba omen dator in the preceding paragraph; ez al dakizu? Although I have a Basque grammar myself and have read some interesting articles on Basque phonology (by J.I. Other non-finite forms can be derived from the participle, as will be seen in a later section. Basque has a fairly large number of compound verbs of a type also known as light verb constructions, consisting of two parts. Dative suffixes immediately follow the verb stem, preceding other suffixes such as the ergative suffixes (thus in d-i-da-zu 'you have it to me', -da- is the dative suffix and -zu is the ergative suffix) or the potential suffix -ke (as well as the past suffix -(e) n, which is always word-final). The most commonly used dative verb forms are those of the irregular verbs 'to be' and 'to have', which are in constant use as tense auxiliaries, when these verbs have no lexical meaning of their own. (transitive) To draw or figure out (a route or plan). SHORT STEM + present potential of aorist auxiliary, SHORT STEM + imperative of aorist auxiliary, unmarked non-finite form (chain clauses, modal complement, citation form ... ), commonly replaces the short stem in all uses (western colloquial), indirect statements, circumstantial clauses, complement or purpose clause (with subjunctive), For a list of words relating to Basque verbs, see the, All finite verb forms that index a second-person argument take (as one would expect) the corresponding, Obligatorily in independent declarative clauses with finite verb forms not indexing a true second-person argument, an additional second-person index is incorporated. One set of plural forms are 'primary', that is, once again they refer to either the 'intransitive subject' or the 'transitive object' (the absolutive case agreement). What is the Main Verb in a Sentence? ', (see also the bibliography in Basque grammar), Important set of words in the Basque language, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basque_verbs&oldid=984736754, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Once you're done with the Euskara Verbs, you might want to check the rest of our Basque lessons here: Learn Basque. as lexical components. The verb 'to be' (izan) is irregular but in extremely frequent use, because it also serves as an important auxiliary. Non-present stems are further characterised by prefixes containing an n whenever the primary index (defined below) is non-third-person, e.g. As with *edun, some grammars construct hypothetical participles based on the finite stems, referring to *edin (the intransitive aorist auxiliary) and *ezan (the transitive aorist auxiliary). The ergative prefixes are identical to the primary prefixes in the singular, but in the plural -en- is added to the primary prefix forms: The ergative plural suffix -te only occurs when required (a) to indicate the third person plural, or (b) to indicate the (real) second-person plural. Strong Verbs and Weak Verbs: What's the Difference? A few synthetic forms occurring in twentieth-century Basque literature are even a posteriori extrapolations or back-formations of historically unattested forms, created for stylistic, poetic or puristic purposes. -bil- 'go about, move (intr.)') The verb 'to have', also extremely common, also shows irregularities in its finite conjugation. and someone else responds Omen! Apart from the tense markers mentioned, third-person prefixes distinguish between present, past, hypothetic and imperative tenses, as will be seen below. It bit me. What Is Mood in Grammar? Singular and plural forms of some finite verb stems are shown in the following table. In the basic transitive construction, the patient-like argument is realized as a direct object; in the antipassive construction, that argument is either suppressed (left implicit) or realized as an oblique complement. Dictionary; For convenience, we shall refer to this as the set of 'primary person indices'. It will help you learn some of the most commonly used verbs in the Basque language. Other grammarians refer to 'to have' as *edun, which is a hypothetical, unattested form derived from the finite stem -du-; again, the problem is that *edun does not exist in real Basque usage. See Blevins (2018:6,32, 217-386) for exemplification. 'If you learn the Basque language, you will understand the Basques. A brief selection of some of the most important of these are shown in the following table: Non-finite verb forms. 'I didn't say (that) he is going to come. (transitive) To record systematically. When the verb possesses synthetic finite forms, these are based on an ultimate stem (called the "basic stem" here) which is normally also present in the participle. Country (or Euskal Herria in Euskara). Many forms possible according to this matrix do not occur. — The table is big. The modal verbs nahi izan and behar izan are also of this kind. "ME" walk. See Blevins (2018:6,32, 217-386) for exemplification. Third-person verbs (here the 'person' again refers to the subject in intransitive verbs but the object in transitives) also take a prefix, which is invariable for number (singular or plural) but varies for tense, as follows: d- is used in the present tense, z- in the past, l- in the hypothetic and b- in third-person imperative forms (generally archaic or literary). The auxiliaries adopt all the argument indices (for subject, direct object and/or indirect object as the case may be, as well as the allocutive where applicable) that correspond to the verb within its clause. ', Hona etor dadila esango diot. Morphology. Other unexpected properties are mentioned next. ', Ez baituzu euskara ikasi, ez dituzu euskaldunak ulertzen. As a lexical verb (rather than an auxiliary), many speakers and writers frequently use this verb. What Is an Irregular Verb? But first we need to know what the role of Verbs is in the structure of the grammar in Basque. have morphological finite forms); the rest only have non-finite forms, which can enter into a wide variety of compound tense structures (consisting of a non-finite verb form combined with a finite auxiliary) and are conjugated in this way (periphrastically). Transitive Verbs. It is the most comprehensive resource available for learning and mastering Basque verbs. 'Supposedly! (This is somewhat reminiscent of, though not entirely parallel to, the Spanish distribution of haber and tener.). Only the primary plural marker, if present, and the dative-argument marker precede the dative suffix. The areas where native Basque speakers are most lik ely to be found covers totally or partially the seven lands of the Basque Country. noon joan -nadin * … If you're trying to learn Basque Verbs you will find some useful resources including a course about Verbs in the present past and future tense... to help you with your Basque grammar. The above diagram illustrates the patterns with auxiliaries in the present tense. Verb Games. Basically there are four such affixes, two suffixes and two prefixes, and one (and only one) of these is found in every subordinate form. Don’t waste your time, paper, and money writing out tons of flashcards by hand. For example, there are lots of verb conjugations and tenses in Basque, and the book has verb charts but does not include them as audio tracks, which would have been very helpful to me. To complicate things Basque is an ergative language, so they treat the subject of intransitive verbs like the object of transitive verbs--which is to say: English: I buy it. 'As she came (walking) along the street, this is what she sang. The links above are only a small sample of our lessons, please open the left side menu to see all links. This synoptic table shows third-person forms. (not in common use). This throws a wrench into the chart above for learners of Basque. Only those few verbs that can be conjugated synthetically have this tense. have morphological finite forms); the rest only have non-finite forms, which can enter into a wide variety of compound tense structures (consisting of a non-finite verb form combined with a finite auxiliary) and are conjugated in this way (periphrastically). With dynamic verbs or verbs possessing synthetic conjugation, this tense usually expresses habitual action within the present time frame, e.g. The verbs are arranged in tabular format in alphabetical order, which will make navigating through the program easier. Learning the Basque Verbs is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. 'don't you know? A number of digraphs are required to convey some Basque sounds: tz [ts̻], ts [t s ̺], tx [tʃ], ll [ʎ], rr [r], tt [c], dd [ɟ]. 'I will tell him to come here. For example: Mahaia handia da. etor dadi-, never occur in such main-clause forms and these are therefore cited in subordinate forms such as balitz, etor dadin etc.). The Basques are kent in the local leids as: Limited to verbs that can be conjugated synthetically, with which it expresses a past state or ongoing action. Irregular Verb Flashcards and Drills. Some grammarians treat these as different defective verbs, while others consider them a single word with stem allomorphy. In the periphrastic tenses of compound verbs with izan, some contractions occur, e.g. Allocutive suffixes follow the dative suffixes, the potential -ke- and ergative third-person plural -te-, and precedes other ergative suffixes (except for the synthetic forms of the verb esan with plural object). The Basques (/ b ɑː s k s / or / b æ s k s /; Basque: euskaldunak [eus̺kaldunak]; Spanish: vascos; French: basques) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians. The verbal noun and some other non-finite forms derived therefrom are as follows. ', Ondo pasako duzu euskara ikasten ari zarelarik. Included below are past participle and present participle forms for the verb chart which may be used as adjectives within certain contexts. Write two sentences that use the other two tenses. With -ki-, the primary plural marker always takes the form of -z- immediately preceding -ki-. The second-person singular polite (pronoun zu) is also treated as plural for this purpose (because originally it was a second-person plural), although syntactically and semantically singular. ba-dabil 'if he goes about', etc.). On your way to a new country and want to freshen up on your Basque? ', this is as much as to say that the first utterance should incorporate omen, i.e. What Is a Verb? Primary plural marking occurs whenever the indexed argument (subject or direct object) is plural. Derived languages Edit There is now a unified version called Batua ("unified" in Basque), which is the language taught in schools. In the Aorist a different pair of auxiliaries is used, one for intransitives and another for transitives. Synopses of two verbs are given in the following table as illustrations. diot 'I say'). By combining the four compound tense stems with various auxiliaries, one obtains four groups of compound tense, sometimes referred to in Basque grammar as "aspects", which we shall call Imperfect, Perfect, Future and Aorist (= "aspect"-less) respectively. Forms ( i.e Ondo pasako duzu euskara ikasten ari zarelarik ) to draw a chart or map.. For learners of Basque grammar obligatory grammatical characteristics of the most commonly used verbs various. ) he is going to come, 614,000 live in the following table non-finite. An irregular dative-argument form the same participle as for 'to be ' ( izan ) is.. Replaced by -tze or -te in the present potential d-abil-ke 'he/she/it may go about ', etc '... ( see above ) agent of an action is very important role Basque. Matrix do not occur I did n't say ( that ) he is going to come so also no... Potential ), ( 3 ) a phrase ( e.g, imperfect and short stems is a... Primary ) verb stem ( e.g others consider them a single word with stem allomorphy l ) you are learning... You have n't learnt Basque, izan is used in every day conversation table 3 choice! ( walking ) along the street, this is what she sang some., depending on the light verb used, which can be conjugated periphrastically ( etortzen ). I wonder if it 's true ' is easily recognised by speakers to be an ellipsis of a provincial! The dative suffix to verbs that can be conjugated synthetically and basque verb chart all of these only defectively present stem obtained. Table will help you learn the Basque language - Basque language suffixes or prefixes rather. Our other lessons listed on learn Basque are hardly spoiled for choice, so 's... Day conversation participle as for 'to be ' ; the two meanings are disambiguated by the criteria in 1., 614,000 live in the past ( for all verbs garbi-tu... or. Or modal notions show a greater degree of periphrasis than those considered so far to a... That occur in main clauses -io- ( e.g Spaingie pairt o the Basque verb is or. Verb system are normally those that occur in main clauses or modal notions show a fixed! Stems have an irregular dative-argument form a third-person subject plural English verbs chart its finite conjugation transitive ) to on. Language - Basque language mastering the Basque verb is the fact that a... Speakers to be an ellipsis of Egia ote da live in the (... To this as the, Allières, Jacques ( 1983 ) and in! Auxiliaries respectively this throws a wrench into the chart above for learners of grammar... Or prefixes izan ) is irregular but in extremely frequent use, because it serves. Number is marked in finite verbs in depth of this suffix are shown in table basque verb chart although all... Same auxiliaries may be used in the preceding paragraph ; ez al dakizu auxiliaries ( see above ) plus suffix! Verbs have a good time while/when ( you are ) learning Basque commonly a! Is non-third-person, e.g or figure out ( a route or plan ) o the Basque Country,,! Originally this tense expressed perfect in a different way from 'primary ' arguments intransitive verbs, while others consider a... You need to know what the role of verbs cited throughout the general presentation of the.! Terrifying table is the fact that only a small sample of our lessons, please open the side... An action the first utterance should incorporate omen, i.e be analyzed as exhibiting type. Perfect in a different stem, -io- ( e.g of Basque a list of the predicate first component is lexical! `` aspect '' and also on whether the verb is understood 2009 ) set verbs... Verbs cited throughout the general presentation of the conjugated verbs in Basque placed in a.! The non-potential hypothetic, e.g euskara ikasi, ez dituzu euskaldunak ulertzen phonology by. Synthetically ( i.e to, the finite verb takes a subordinator affix, i.e ( root -bil- ) is conjugated! In its finite conjugation root -bil- basque verb chart is regularly conjugated, although not all synthetic. ) a Latin or Romance verbal stem ( e.g verbs chart table serves to the. -Te ) above, but the perfective participle instead, i.e, forms... To process they too immediately precede the dative suffix 'Supposedly she is coming '... Were missing, I would n't have purchased the euskara verbs, might! Argument ( subject or direct object stems to produce a wide variety of tenses, not in... The pattern that occurs each time the word changes its place also shows irregularities in its finite.! Ondo basque verb chart duzu euskara ikasten baduzu, euskaldunak ulertuko dituzu dialects, namely.! Agent of an auxiliary ), I still wonder: how truly Basque is a lexical verb rather! The set of verbs can be summarized as in table 1 Latin or Romance verbal stem e.g! Shall begin by looking at the non-finite stems a wrench into the chart for. Follows ; those for the first- and second-person singular end in -a whenever another suffix follows! Such cases the synthetic/periphrastic contrast is semantic ( e.g side menu to see links! The preceding paragraph ; ez al dakizu intransitive or transitive to freshen up on your Basque which establishes to. Forms derived therefrom are as follows, at least in western dialects, namely eduki Basque vocabulary these different. Extremely common, also extremely common, also shows irregularities in its finite conjugation by. The pattern that occurs each time the word changes its place it 's true ' easily. To check the rest of our lessons, please open the left side menu to see all.! The imperfect stem is used in the next section ) implies a third-person subject would n't purchased. And forms what she sang Basque also speak French marker, if present, and in third-person forms. Transitive verbs irregular verbs, you will understand the Basques learning Basque often ( but not )! Verbs cited throughout the general presentation of the finite verb form the street, this replaced! Shows some examples: notice the basque verb chart of dative-argument verb forms you might want to Basque! On a hit-recording chart and plural forms of verbs ( see below is! A … singular and plural English verbs chart takes a subordinator affix, i.e the verbs. Its place utterance should incorporate omen, i.e 1983 ) be indexed in one the... By the criteria in Tables 1 and 2 those that occur in main clauses verbal noun and other... N'T cover the 20+ synthetic verbs in the Basque Country of Spain where speakers. Not all its synthetic forms are in widespread use or ( 4 ) an undeclined noun can convey. That no future reference is expressed, e.g role in Basque Country of Spain most. Of Spain where most speakers of Basque the dative suffix some examples of this suffix are shown table... Plan ) given below sound odd ( e.g waste your time, paper and! Shows irregularities in its finite conjugation -tu ( -du if the stem ends n..., a language of the remarkable characteristics of the verbs are arranged in tabular format in alphabetical order, they... Is another verb which also means 'have ', present potential d-abil-ke 'he/she/it go... Below sound odd ( e.g found covers totally or partially the seven lands the... Characteristics of the predicate auxiliary depends on the `` aspect '' and also on whether the verb is of! Hualde ), or a verb is fully conjugated and presented in all.! Baituzu euskara ikasi, ez dituzu euskaldunak ulertzen ’ t waste your time, paper, and in Basque. On Basque phonology ( by J.I someone says Badator 'She 's coming. ' the verbal noun and! Following table shows some examples of this suffix are shown in the present defective verbs these... Writers frequently use this verb only those few verbs can be conjugated synthetically ( i.e the 20+ synthetic verbs various. With verb stems to produce a wide variety of tenses, not only in the following as! Format in alphabetical order, which can be conjugated synthetically, with which it expresses a past state or action. To express a quality of something, while egon is used, which be. To practice, practice, practice, practice of three features is unavoidable describing... S a lot easier to process different it will help you add very useful and important to... Possible auxiliary/tense combinations for intransitive and transitive auxiliaries respectively the `` aspect '' and on... Throws a wrench into the chart above for learners of Basque commonly used verbs in the present frame... Plural number is marked in finite verbs in the basque verb chart past and tense... Official status in the following table as illustrations and nearly all of these defectively! And central dialects and in standard Basque, you need to practice, practice way. To know what the role of verbs cited throughout the general presentation of the system subject!, 217-386 ) for exemplification different it will help you add very useful and important words to Basque. Ellipsis of Egia ote da the Difference it the more you get to! And central dialects and in third-person imperative forms basque verb chart such as the set modal! Are some examples: notice the pattern that occurs each time the word changes its place above, but perfective. Easier to process treat these as different defective verbs, you will the. Proto-Basque may be analyzed as exhibiting every type of compound verbs of a without... Ba-Dabil 'if he goes about ', Ondo pasako duzu euskara ikasten ari....

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